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WORK-LIFE BALANCE

Work-Life Balance Annotated Bibliography (opens as PDF)

Beigi, M.; Wang, J. & Arthur, M. (2017). Work-family interface in the context of career success: A qualitative inquiry. Human Relations, 70(9), 1091-1114. doi: 10.1177/0018726717691339. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0018726717691339

This study reveals that seven superordinate themes were true across all 28 subjects: intrinsic motivation for work, spouse support, parenthood, long non traditional work hours, work benefits, personal life and family involvement, and managing an intense period.

Churchill, M. (2011). Beyond the 'company man' model: rethinking academic administration for work--life balance. On Campus with Women, 40(1). http://archive.aacu.org/ocww/volume40_1/fromwhereisit.cfm?section=2

This study points out the differential likelihood for men in administrative positions in higher education to have children as compared to women.

Kalliath, T., & Brough, P. (2008). Work–life balance: A review of the meaning of the balance construct. Journal of Management & Organization, 14(03), 323-327. doi:10.1017/s1833367200003308. http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/docview/233254631

The authors propose this definition of work-life balance: “Work-life balance is the individual perception that work and non-work activities are compatible and promote growth in accordance with an individual’s current life priorities.”

Khallash, S., & Kruse, M. (2012). The future of work and work-life balance 2025. Futures, 44(7), 678-686. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2012.04.007 http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/science/article/pii/S0016328712001085

The authors define work-life balance as not only external pressures on one’s time, but also the internal pressures for self-motivation and personal satisfaction in work and personal performance.

Perrakis, A., & Martinez, C. (2012). In Pursuit of Sustainable Leadership: How Female Academic Department Chairs With Children Negotiate Personal and Professional Roles. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 14(2), 205-220. doi:10.1177/1523422312436417 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1523422312436417

The authors argue that the rate of women hired into faculty positions is on the rise, but fewer tenured women faculty than tenured men hold administrative positions.

Sapey, E. (2015). Work–life balance in academic medicine. The Lancet, 385. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60322-1 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(15)60322-1/fulltext

In order to retain and recruit women into academic medicine, the author argues for being realistic about an achievable work load; increasing the “right kind of” mentoring opportunities; and creating collaborative and supportive links between women to learn from one another. 

FLEXIBLE WORK ARRANGEMENTS/WORKPLACE FLEXIBILITY

Flexibility Annotated Bibliography (opens as PDF)

Bathani, D. & Kandathil, G. (2015). Work from Home: A Boon or a Bane? The missing piece of employee cost. The Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 50, 568-574. https://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/8eg12cz4o2fq6m11

The authors of this article argue that research on work from home policies has focused too exclusively on the benefits to employees and the cost to employers, meanwhile ignoring the cost to employees.

Christensen, Kathleen & Schneider, Barbara. (2011). Making a Case for Workplace Flexibility. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 638, 6-20. doi: 10.1177/0002716211417245. http://www.jstor.org To access the articles referenced in this introductory article, visit: http://www.jstor.org.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/stable/i40061354

Based upon Alfred P. Sloan Foundation’s Workplace, Work Force and Working Families Program research, this introductory article briefly summarizes decades of scholarly work on the subject of workplace flexibility.

Fisher, Lisa M. (2010). Flexible Work Arrangements in Context: How Identity, Place and Process Shape Approaches to Flexibility (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. (3419959). http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/docview/756900055/fulltextPDF/79850E31482941B0PQ/1?accountid=12598

The author argues in favor of viewing the success of flexible work arrangements from a combined lens of workplace structure and workplace culture. Gender is a workplace structure that influences the composition of the workplace and assumptions therein that provide a backdrop to understanding workplace flexibility

Halpern, Diane F. (2005). How Time-Flexible Work Policies Can Reduce Stress, Improve Health, and Save Money. Stress and Health, 21(3), 157-168. doi: 10.1002/smi.1049 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/smi.1049/epdf

The author argues that family-friendly work policies can ultimately save companies money (in higher productivity time and lower health care costs) and simultaneously increase employee job satisfaction.

Hill, E.J., Grzywacz, J.G., Allen, S., Blanchard, V.L., Matz-Costa, C., Shulkin, S. & PittCatsouphes, M. (2008). Defining and Conceptualizing Workplace Flexibility. Community, Work & Family, 11(2), 149-163. doi: 10.1080/13668800802024678 http://www.tandfonline.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/doi/abs/10.1080/13668800802024678

The article argues that there are two main conceptualizations of this term: organizational perspective, which focuses on the organization’s needs and the worker perspective, which focuses on the individual within the organizational structure

Luxton, Emma. (2016). This Organisation increased employee productivity, happiness and trust by making just one change. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/07/this-organisation-increased-employee-productivity-happiness-and-trust-by-making-just-one-change/

The study found that remote working (at least two days per week) resulted in decreases in employee stress, increases in worker productivity, and financial gains for the employer

Moen, P., Kelly, E., & Hill, R. (2011). Does Enhancing Work-Time Control and Flexibility Reduce Turnover? A Naturally Occurring Experiment. Social Problems, 50(1), 69-98. doi: 10.1525/sp.2011.58.1.69 https://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/v4d1g4sa2ea9v1ez

The authors discovered that "Results Only Work Environments" (ROWE) reduce turnover.

O’Meara, K. & Campbell, C. (2011). Faculty Sense of Agency in Decisions about Work and Family. The Review of Higher Education, 34(3), 447-476. http://search.proquest.com.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/docview/864037019/fulltextPDF/F8021AB2773A41CEPQ/1?accountid=12598

The authors suggest that many factors influence a faculty member’s decision whether or not to utilize policies that assist with balancing work and family care – especially their sense of agency related to their department’s “ideal worker norms”, presence or lack of role models, and social and political stratification, among others.

Society for Human Resource Management. (2009). Workplace Flexibility in the 21st Century: Meeting the Needs of the Changing Workforce. Alexandria, VA. https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-magazine/documents/09-0464_workplace_flexibility_survey_report_inside_finalonline.pdf

This report finds that 6 out of 10 organizations (60%) offer flexible work arrangements and that employees’ lives are positively impacted by access to flexibility.

Stroup, C. & Yoon, J. (2016). What impact do flexible work arrangements (FWA) have on employee performance and overall business results? Retrieved May 5, 2017 from Cornell University, ILR School site: http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/student/115/

The authors argue that flexible work arrangements (FWAs) provide a financial benefit to employers and help employees manage their work life balance.

Sweeney, Kevin. (2003). Flex Time Accommodates Employer Budgets. Employee Benefit News, 17(3), 50-52. https://web-a-ebscohost-com.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/ehost/detail/detail?sid=ae7355e3-56f9-4292-a5f9-7f191769262c%40sessionmgr4010&vid=1&hid=4206&bdata=JnNjb3BlPXNpdGU%3d#AN=9225777&db=bth

The article suggests that employees’ direct supervisors should reassure the use of flexible work arrangements and that when employees use these practices, their productivity increases and their absenteeism decreases. 

Williams, J. & Huang, P. (2011). Improving Work-Life Fit in Hourly Jobs: An Underutilized Cost-Cutting Strategy in a Globalized World. The Center for WorkLife Law, 1-71. https://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/o52dz6mk7l91j0k6

This report provides tools for employers to implement and improve schedule effectiveness and other tactics for improving work-life fit and flexibility, with a focus on hourly workers. 

CHANGING WORLD OF WORK

Changing World of Work Annotated Bibliography (opens as PDF)

Ceci, S. J., Ginther, D. K., Kahn, S., & Williams, W. M. (2014). Women in Academic Science: A Changing Landscape. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 15(3), 75-141. doi:10.1177/1529100614541236. http://psi.sagepub.com.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/content/15/3/75

This article suggests that factors which cause barriers to women's participation in math-intensive science fields happens in pre-college life rather than while in academia

Gerten, A. M. (2011). Moving Beyond Family-Friendly Policies for Faculty Mothers. Affilia, 26(1), 47-58. doi:10.1177/0886109910392532. http://aff.sagepub.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/content/26/1/47

This study reveals that men and women are often reluctant to use family friendly policies because of “perceived career penalty.” 

Harrison, D. F., (2017). The Role of Higher Education in the Changing World of Work. EDUCAUSE Review, 52(6), 8.
https://er.educause.edu/articles/2017/10/the-role-of-higher-education-in-the-changing-world-of-work

The  author outlines particular skills that employers seek in recently graduated employees, including ability to work in complex settings with a quick ability to learn, strong communication skills, and a comprehensive ability to use technology, among others. This points to a major shift in the world of work, as these were historically skills that were learned on the job, rather than skills employees were expected to already demonstrate.

Kossek, E. E., Kalliath, T., & Kalliath, P. (2012). Achieving employee wellbeing in a changing work environment. International Journal of Manpower, 33(7), 738-753. doi:10.1108/01437721211268294 http://www.emeraldinsight.com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/doi/full/10.1108/01437721211268294

Experts in the work-life field discuss indicators and how to measure a "healthy work environment.” Factors that are examined include: engagement, energetic connection to work and family; job demands, in that employees do not feel like they are sacrificing their lives outside of work for their jobs; value at work and how employees' abilities and interests fit their roles; among other factors.

Ollier-Malaterre, A., & Foucreault, A. (2015). Cross-National Work–Life Research. Oxford Handbooks Online. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199337538.013.18 http://jom.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/06/29/0149206316655873.abstract

This article offers a review of cultural and structural factors that influence work-life research in order to enhance research design for “more contextualized and enlightened work-life research.”

Solomon, C. R. (2011). “Sacrificing at the altar of tenure”: Assistant professors’ work/life management. The Social Science Journal, 48(2), 335-344. doi:10.1016/j.soscij.2010.11.006 http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/science/article/pii/S0362331910001151

This author explores the unique work-life needs of faculty in academia without children, by examining their needs side-by-side faculty with children. The research demonstrates that, while the career is generally equally as rigorous for those with and without children, faculty with children placed slightly less emphasis on their career identity and more on their family identity than those without children.

Wharton, A. S. (2014). 2014 PSA Presidential Address (Un)Changing Institutions: Work, Family, and Gender in the New Economy. Sociological Perspectives, 58(1), 7-19. doi:10.1177/0731121414564471 http://spx.sagepub.com.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/content/58/1/7

The article states, “The gendered culture of work and its ideal worker norms persist despite even well-intentioned efforts to make work accommodating to parents.” Change mechanisms in workplaces are complex and can result in unintended consequences.

MILLENNIALS AT WORK

"Creating Tomorrow’s Leaders: the Expanding Roles of Millennials in the Workplace"
Lauren Stiller Rikleen
Boston College Center for Work and Family
https://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/cwf/research/publications/executivebriefingseries/Executive%20Briefing_Creating%20Tomorrows%20Leaders_Millennials

"The Best Practices provided (in this document) demonstrate an understanding of the Millennials and an investment in their future. These practices showcase a variety of ways to engage Millennials, for example: by using social networks to connect them both locally and globally; by providing opportunities for Millennials to meet and work with company leaders; and by helping Millennials develop and implement philanthropic and other projects that showcase their talents, engage their passion for meaningful work, and expand their networks."

"How Millennials Navigate Their Careers Young Adult Views on Work, Life and Success"
Brad Harrington, Fred Van Deusen, Jennifer Sabatini Fraone, Jeremiah Morelock
Boston College Center for Work and Family, 2016
https://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/cwf/research/publications/researchreports/How%20Millennials%20Navigate%20their%20Careers

The researchers "surveyed 1,100 Millennial-aged men and women to better understand the impact these generational changes are having on their careers. [They] wanted to answer a number of questions such as: How do young adults search for jobs? Is there a difference between how young women and young men perceive success? What are employers and HR departments doing that young people see as most helpful to their career success? What organizational characteristics are most likely to increase or decrease employee retention and engagement?"

"The New Dad: Caring, Committed and Conflicted"
Brad Harrington, Fred Van Deusen, Beth Humberd
Boston College Center for Work and Family, 2011
https://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/cwf/pdf/FH-Study-Web-2.pdf

"This report illustrates the desire of today’s fathers to do meaningful work and live meaningful lives, to be effective as both workers and caregivers."

BEST PRACTICES

Bockes, R., Chism, J., Goodwin, M., Kemp, S., Marin, L., & Westlund, M. (2015Parental leave policy: quest for change in staff policy. Unpublished manuscript, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. (.docx)(.pdf)

"At a time when new parents should be celebrating, the current leave time accruals for staff tend to have the opposite effect. This report addresses some relatively low to budget neutral solutions for staff who request time off for the birth, adoption, or fostering of a child."